Marc van Oostendorp
Schwa in phonological theory



Some case studies: Yupik, Indonesian, Frisian, Turkish; overview of the remaining problems; an invitation to schwa.


Yupik languages generally have an iambic stress pattern. Stressed vowels are lengthened, except when they are (underlying) schwa.

/qayani/ -> [qaya:ni]


Indonesian is problematic for the account proposed here, because in this language schwa seems really invisible for stress:

There is no way in which this can be described directly.

cát `print'
cári `search for'
bicára `speak'
bìjaksána `wise'
kòntinuási `continuation'
òtobìográfi `autobiography'
àmerikànisási `Americanization'

b@rí `give'
s@t@láh `after'
gám@lan `Indonesian orchestra'
apárt@men `appartment'
c@rìt@ra `story'
p@r@mpúan `woman'
dìf@rensiási `differentiation'
dìv@rsifikási `diversification'